Sand casting is the most commonly used process of aluminum casting. With the continuous development of China’s industrialization process, the application range of large aluminum castings has been expanded gradually, and higher requirements have been put forward for the casting technology of large aluminum castings. At present, for large aluminum castings, sand mold low-pressure casting technology is adopted, with high production efficiency, low investment cost, high metal utilization rate and excellent casting quality. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the research on low-pressure casting technology of sand mold for large aluminum castings to ensure the performance of aluminum castings and improve the economic benefits of enterprises.
Sand mold casting shall be first made of wood mold or metal mold, and then moulded according to the mold. Sand mold casting is usually more economical for small, complex designs or large aluminum castings.
Sand mold casting process includes six main stages as follows:
1. Mold making — making molds according to drawings and casting techniques, usually wooden or metal molds.
2. Modeling — selecting appropriate molding sand according to the mold for modeling.
3. Smelting — conduct batching, weighing and smelting according to required chemical composition.
4.Pouring — pour aluminum water into the ladle at the set temperature of the oven, calm and pour into the cavity.
5. Cooling — once the molten metal that is poured into the mold enters the cavity, it will start to cool and solidify.
6. Unbox — unbox after insulation for a period of time to remove casting.
7. Grinding and dressing — remove the pouring riser first, and then polish the casting.
Sand mold casting process can be used to manufacture metal parts of various complex geometric shapes. These parts vary greatly in size and weight, ranging from a few ounces to several tons. Some smaller sand casting parts include gears, pulleys, crankshafts, linkages and propellers. The larger applications include large equipment and heavy machinery base shells. Sand casting is also common in the production of automobile parts, such as engine block, engine runner, cylinder cover and gearbox.
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