Nickel, a silver-white, hard and malleable metal element with ferromagnetic properties, can be highly polished and resistant to corrosion. Nickel is a ferrophilic element. The highest nickel content in the earth’s core is a natural nickel-iron alloy. In the earth’s crust, the iron-magnesia rocks have higher nickel content than the siliceous rocks, for example, the peridotite nickel content is 1000 times that of granite, and the gabbro rock nickel content is 80 times that of granite.
(1) Has good ductility and has medium hardness.
(2) It is a silver-white metal with magnetic properties and good plasticity. It is green after dissolving in nitric acid. Mainly used in alloys (such as nickel steel and nickel silver) and as a catalyst (such as Raney nickel, especially used as a hydrogenation catalyst);
(3) Density 8.902 g / cm3.;
(4)Melting point 1453 ℃ .;
(5)Boiling point 2732 ℃.
The peripheral electron is 3d84s2, which is located in Group VIII of the fourth cycle. The chemical properties are more lively, but more stable than iron. It is difficult to oxidize in the air at room temperature, and it is not easy to react with concentrated nitric acid. Fine nickel wire is combustible, reacts with halogen when heated, and slowly dissolves in dilute acid. Can absorb a considerable amount of hydrogen.
Nickel is insoluble in water, and forms a dense oxide film on the surface in humid air at normal temperature, which can prevent the body metal from continuing to oxidize.
It can slowly dissolve in dilute acid and release hydrogen to produce green positive divalent nickel ion Ni2 +; resistant to strong alkali. Nickel can be burned in pure oxygen and emits dazzling white light. Similarly, nickel can also be burned in chlorine and fluorine.
No reaction to oxidant solutions, including nitric acid. Nickel is a medium strength reducing agent. Nickel hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, organic acids and alkaline solutions attack nickel very slowly. Nickel slowly dissolves in dilute nitric acid. Fuming nitric acid can passivate nickel surface and have corrosion resistance.
Nickel, like platinum and palladium, can absorb large amounts of hydrogen during passivation. The smaller the particle size, the greater the absorption. The important salts of nickel are nickel sulfate and nickel chloride. Nickel nitrate is also commonly used in the laboratory, with crystal water, the chemical formula is Ni (NO3) 2 · 6H2O, green transparent particles, easy to absorb water vapor in the air.
Similar to iron and cobalt, it is stable to water and air at room temperature, and can resist alkaline corrosion, so nickel crucibles can be used to melt alkali in the laboratory. Nickel sulfate (NiSO4) can form alum Ni (SO4) 2.6H2O (MI is alkali metal ion) with alkali metal sulfate. + 2valent nickel ions can form coordination compounds. Under normal pressure, nickel can react with carbon monoxide to form highly toxic nickel tetracarbonyl (Ni (CO) 4), which after heating will decompose into metallic nickel and carbon monoxide.
- Atomic number 28
- Atomic weight 58.71
- Metal radius 124.6 picometers
- The first ionization energy 741.1kJ / mol
- Electronegativity 1.8
- Major oxidation numbers +2, +3, +4
Because nickel has good corrosion resistance, it is often used in electroplating. Mainly used in alloys (formulations) (such as nickel steel and nickel silver) and as catalysts (such as Raney nickel, especially as hydrogenation catalysts), can be used to make currency, etc., plating on other metals can prevent rust. It is mainly used to manufacture stainless steel and other anti-corrosion alloys, such as nickel steel, nickel-chromium steel and various non-ferrous metal alloys. Copper-nickel alloys with high nickel content are not easy to corrode. It is also used as a hydrogenation catalyst and used in the preparation of ceramic products, special chemical vessels, electronic circuits and nickel compounds etc.
Electrolytic nickel: Electrolytic nickel is nickel supported by electrolysis. Stainless steel and various alloy steels made of electrolytic nickel are widely used in aircraft, tanks, ships, radar, missiles, and spacecraft. It is also used in the fields of machine manufacturing, ceramic pigments, permanent magnetic materials, electronic remote control in the civil industry.
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