What is the difference between KN95 mask, N95 mask, medical mask, medical surgical mask FFP2 and other masks
In the past few days, we have been paying attention to masks: “Medical masks”, “Medical nursing masks”, “Medical surgical masks”, “Medical protective masks”, “N95”, “KN95”, and even “FFP1 masks,” “FFP2 mask” and so on. Don’t you dazzle? With so many different names and different types of masks, would you really choose?
It is mainly classified into two categories: one is medical masks and the other is civilian masks. Medical surgical masks, medical protective masks, N95, FFP2 can be used for the protection of medical institutions, KN95 can not be used in medical institutions, but ordinary people can choose their own, what is the difference between other masks, first look at this table.
Table: Classification of Common Masks
|Common masks||Use standard||Other masks of the same type|
|Disposable medical mask||With national standard, you can also refer to the technical standards attached to the registration certificate: Such as: YY / T 0969-2013||Medical: In the general diagnosis and treatment environment, prevent droplets and body fluids|
|Medical surgical mask||YY0469-2011||Medical: prevent splashing of body fluids during invasive procedures|
|Medical protective mask||GB19083-2010||Medical: The highest standard is implemented to prevent solid particles, droplets, and blood|
|KN95||GB2626-2019||Civil: KN90 / KN95 / KN100 (and KP series)|
|N95||American NIOSH42CFR84-1995 standard||N95 / N99 / N100 (also R series, P series)|
1. Medical: disposable medical mask (medical nursing mask)
Disposable medical masks, medical masks, and medical nursing masks generally implement the standard: YY0969, but there are also many designed and manufactured for enterprises themselves, and generally cannot guarantee the filterability of pathogenic microorganisms and dust. They are generally used in hospitals for routine care, mainly The function is to block the daily cross-contamination between medical staff and patients, and there is no particularly high requirement.
2. Medical: Medical surgical mask: YY0469-2011
Medical surgical masks must be produced according to the medical standard YY0469-2011; surgical masks are mainly used for invasive operations such as surgery and tube placement in hospitals, and key monitoring departments of sensory control generally require the use of such masks.
YY0469 has requirements for bacterial filtration performance for surgical masks. Generally, the filtration efficiency of non-oily particles should reach more than 30%, and the filtration efficiency of bacteria must reach more than 95% (note that this is not the meaning of N95, and should not be confused with medical protective masks ) In addition, medical surgical masks also have requirements for the permeability of synthetic blood (which can be simply understood as anti-permeability). When the company manufactures, the mask is generally divided into three layers: the inner water absorption layer, the middle filter layer, and the outer waterproof layer Each layer has a special role.
3. Medical: Medical protective mask
Medical protective masks, followed by disposable medical nursing masks, also called medical protective masks, comply with the GB19083-2003 standard. Important technical indicators include non-oily particle filtration efficiency and airflow resistance. The filtration efficiency of sodium oxide aerosol with diameter (0.24 ± 0.06) μm is not less than 95%, which is in line with N95 and above. Inhalation resistance does not exceed 343.2Pa.
4. Civil: KN mask: GB2626-2006 / 2019
Due to the different workplaces, the particulates that people are exposed to can generally be divided into two categories: oily and non-oily. Among them, “KN” masks are mainly used to protect non-oily particulates, while “KP” masks can protect oily particulates. It can also protect non-oily particulates. For example, the chemical industry is more exposed to oily particulates (such as paraffin oil vapor, etc.). Generally, KP masks are used; other industries including ordinary civilians, KN masks are mainly used (of course, there are also some civilian fog Haze masks can use KP masks).
According to the requirements of the GB2626 standard, KN masks are divided again according to their filtration performance for non-oily particulate matter, and there are three masks that are familiar to everyone. Among them, the KN95 mask has a filtration performance of more than 95% for non-oily particulate matter (tested with sodium chloride), which is one of the most common masks. See the table below for details
Table: Filtration efficiency
|Type and level of filter element||Particle detection with sodium chloride||Detection with oil particles|
See here, I do n’t know if you have found a problem. Just now, I have told you that medical surgical masks (YY0469-2011) require that the filtering performance of non-oily particulates is ≥30%, which is ≥95% of KN95 mask The requirements are much lower, so many people naturally think that: KN masks, especially KN95 masks, are definitely better than medical surgical masks! Is this absolute?
Surgical masks have anti-penetration requirements and are generally divided into three layers. The outermost layer is a waterproof layer. The main reason for using masks in the medical environment is to isolate bacteria. Once bacteria are attached to the outer surface of the mask, it is easy to follow the wet mask directly. Penetration into the inside of the mask, so anti-penetration is very important!
Throughout the entire GB2626, no standard requirements for waterproofing of KN masks have been found, not only KN masks, but also KP masks. That is to say, qualified masks that meet all the standards of GB2626 have no requirements for penetration resistance. At this point, KN masks are not as good as surgical masks!
FAQ 1: Is it good or bad to have a breathing valve?
Because doctors and patients wearing masks cannot guarantee that they must be healthy and virus-free (infectious during the incubation period), and the airflow of masks with exhalation valves is only one-way protection, and it cannot cut off the transmission route very well. From the perspective of epidemic control, two-way protection is the most correct way, so this type of mask is not recommended.
FAQ 2: About the standard of protective masks: Which is better, GB19083-2010 or GB2626?
Misunderstanding: There is no “N95” statement in China’s GB19083 standard, but the expressions of “1”, “2” and “3” are used to indicate the filtration efficiency level. Generally, the level 1 can meet the requirements of “N95 / KN95” . In other words, as long as any “medical protective mask” conforms to the GB19083 standard, the filtration efficiency of N95 and KN95 has definitely been achieved.
Difference: GB19083 is the highest medical implementation standard. This is the medical implementation standard. You will find that there are no breathing valves for these masks, and they are all used in medical scenarios. Of course, if you can buy them, you can also use them outside. The GB2626 is usually a civilian mask, which is mainly used as a protection for non-medical scenes such as painting, welding and industrial and smog. For example, the most common 3M brand KN95 masks are this type!
In addition, like the medical surgical masks of YY0469-2011, GB19083 also put forward the requirements of “synthetic blood penetration”, and there is an additional parameter requirement of “surface moisture resistance”, which clarifies the medical protective masks for blood, body fluids and other liquids. Protection effect, and these are not in GB2626 (KN type). Do you see any difference? There is no anti-flying liquid splash for civilian use. This is only for medical use.
to sum up：
If you feel that the academic content above is a bit dizzy, let’s compare the most common masks with a picture:
Table: Comparison of the differences between the most common masks
|project||Surgical mask||KN mask||Medical protective mask|
|Non-oily particulate filterability||≥30%||≥90%(KN90)||≥95% (level 1)|
|≥95%(KN95)||≥99% (level 2)|
|≥99.97%(KN100)||≥99.97% (level 3)|
|Liquid proof requirements||Synthetic blood penetration;||no request||Synthetic blood penetration;|
|There should be no penetration;||There should be no penetration;|
|Surface moisture resistance;||Surface moisture resistance;|
|Only a small area that is not connected is wet or not wet on the affected surface;|
|Breathing valve||/||Yes, no||Should not have|
|other||slightly||Breathing valve, only to protect the wearer||slightly|
The KN mask conforming to GB2626, because it cannot be guaranteed that the mask will not be wetted, can not be used for medical operations, especially high-risk operations such as tracheotomy and tracheal intubation.
2. Masks of level 1 and above complying with GB19083 can not only achieve 95% filterability, but also prevent liquid penetration, and can be used for various operations in medical institutions.
3. Medical surgical masks conforming to YY0469 can not reach 95% filterability, but can prevent liquid penetration. Due to their tightness with human face is not as good as medical protective masks, it is generally not used for the protection of high-risk operations, but it can meet ordinary Risky operation.
The above mentioned are all used for the selection of medical institutions, so how should the public choose?
1. Can choose surgical masks, try to choose surgical masks, if not, choose civilian standard masks. (Comfort considerations)
2. You can choose a mask without a breathing valve. Try to choose a mask without a breathing valve. For a detailed introduction of the breathing valve, see “What is the difference between a KN95 mask with a breathing valve switch and no breathing valve? (Security considerations for others)
3. There is really no mask, so stay at home and do n’t go anywhere!
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