Mew Theory of Original Metal Iron Atoms
The electrons of metal iron atoms have wave-particle duality, and the electrons of each iron atom are particulate in the liquid state and fluctuate in the solid state. The value of the wave-particle duality of each iron atom electron is different, there is a small difference, the same is assembled into a single grain. The different values of wave-particle duality result in different liquid crystal temperature and different solid crystal orientation.
The spatial arrangement of iron atoms changes according to temperature. High temperature is a body-centered cubic lattice, medium temperature is a face-centered cubic lattice, and room temperature is a body-centered cubic lattice. The volume of the iron unit cell is the largest at medium temperature, followed by high temperature. Room temperature is minimal. The high-temperature body-centered cubic lattice structure is suitable for high-temperature hot air flow; the medium-temperature face-centered cubic lattice structure fixes the hot air flow and has good thermal insulation performance; the body-centered cubic lattice structure is suitable for low-temperature hot air flow at room temperature.
The regular arrangement of iron atoms does not allow other atoms to penetrate into the regularly arranged gaps, and other atoms can only penetrate into the defects of the arrangement of iron atoms; the size and distribution of point, line, and surface defects determine the quality of metallic iron. The number of point, line, and surface defects is limited, and the limited number determines the limited carbon content of iron. The space size of the grain boundary is limited. When there are few carbon atoms, the iron atoms that deprive the iron grains are combined into cementite at the grain boundary. When the carbon atoms are increased, the carbon atoms gather at the grain boundary to graphite.
The carbon atoms keep the iron crystal structure unchanged, that is, increase the stability of the iron structure. Lines A, H, J, and B of the iron-carbon balance diagram are lattice structure transformation lines, and G, P, and S are also lattice structure transformation lines. These two lines indicate that the carbon atoms keep the original structure stable and do not change. The carbon atoms are filled into the lattice defect space while keeping the crystal structure stable.
Temperature changes cause changes in the volume of the crystal grains and the volume of the lattice defect space, leading to the precipitation and absorption of carbon atoms, resulting in changes in the structural transformation temperature. The precipitated carbon atoms are then filled into the space where other grain defects are large. The growth of grains is the process of volume change and lattice defects continuously precipitation and absorption of carbon atoms until the structure changes.
The C curve is a Gaussian curve in statistics, and it is clear to analyze the C curve with statistical theory. The supercooling power makes the grain structure change to a lower temperature, and the transition structure “martensite” during the transformation of the face-centered cubic structure to the body-centered cubic structure is obtained by quenching. This is the result of the combined effect of iron atoms and supercooling power to reduce the structural transformation temperature and lengthen and slow the transformation process. The reason for the high hardness of martensite is that there are three iron atoms inside the unit cell structure, which leads to the high hardness of the structure; the largest volume of the martensite unit cell results in a large lattice defect space, and the carbon content is much larger than the face center and body The defects of the heart lattice arrangement structure contain carbon capacity.
The principle of materials science is: “Structure determines performance,” metal iron should be understood structurally. The face-centered cubic structure is not magnetically conductive, and the body-centered cubic structure’s magnetic permeability is the reason for the size and size of the structure’s gap, not the electrons of iron atoms determine the magnetic permeability.